Risks of Overweight and Obesity
People who have obesity are at increased risk for many serious diseases like:
High blood pressure (Hypertension)
High LDL cholesterol, low HDL cholesterol
Body pain and difficulty with physical functioning
Osteoarthritis (a breakdown of cartilage and bone within a joint)
Sleep disorder and breathing problems
Some cancers like breast cancer, kidney cancer and liver cancer
Mental illness such as depression
If there is imbalance of energy, it can cause overweight and obesity. An energy imbalance means that your energy intake is not equal to your energy usage. This energy is measured in calories. Energy IN is the amount of calories you get from food and drinks. Energy OUT is the amount of calories that your body uses for things such as breathing, digesting, being physically active, and regulating body temperature.
Your body uses certain nutrients such as carbohydrates or sugars, proteins, and fats from the foods you eat to:
- make energy for immediate use to routine daily body functions and physical activity.
- store energy for future use by your body. Sugars are stored as Glycogen in the liver and muscles. Fats are stored mainly as triglyceride in fat tissue.
The amount of energy that your body gets from the food you eat depends on
- the type of foods you eat
- how the food is prepared
- how long it has been since you last ate.
The body has three types of fat tissues
White, Brown and Beige—that it uses to fuel itself, regulate its temperature in response to cold, and store energy for future use.
Role of each fat type in maintaining energy balance in the body.
- White fat tissue can be found around the kidneys and under the skin in the buttocks, thighs, and abdomen. This fat type stores energy, makes hormones that control the way the body regulates urges to eat or stop eating, and makes inflammatory substances that can lead to complications.
- Brown fat tissue is located in the upper back area of human infants. This fat type releases stored energy as heat energy when a baby is cold. It also can make inflammatory substances. Brown fat can be seen in children and adults.
- Beige fat tissue is seen in the neck, shoulders, back, chest and abdomen of adults and resembles brown fat tissue. This fat type, which uses carbohydrates and fats to produce heat, increases when children and adults are exposed to cold.
It is very simple to understand. When you take in more calories than you use, or when energy IN is more than your energy OUT, Overweight and obesity develops. This type of energy imbalance causes your body to store fat.